The Institute of Computing Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (hereafter ICT) was founded in 1956. It is the first academic establishment to specialize in comprehensive research on computer science and technology in China. ICT has successfully built China’s first general purpose digital computer and now has turned itself into an R&D base for high performance computing technology. ICT successively spun off many academic institutions, such as the Institute of Microelectronics, the Computing Center, the Institute of Software, the Network Information Center, etc. all affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as well as technology companies, such as Lenovo and Dawning.
The Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory – known as CSAIL – is the largest research laboratory at MIT and one of the world’s most important centers of information technology research. CSAIL and its members have played a key role in the computer revolution. The Lab’s researchers have been key movers in developments like time-sharing, massively parallel computers, public key encryption, the mass commercialization of robots, and much of the technology underlying the ARPANet, Internet and the World Wide Web.